"If all the platinum ever mined were melted and poured into an Olympic-sized pool, the platinum would barely reach your ankles. 1 Answer. 198Pt can undergo alpha decay, but its decay has never been observed (the half-life is known to be longer than 3.2×1014 years); therefore, it is considered stable. Platinum may refer to: Platinum Bar, a refined crafting material Platinum Ore, a natural raw material Platinum Coin, a unit of currency [54] Brownrigg also made note of platinum's extremely high melting point and refractoriness toward borax. Due to its rare nature, platinum is historically more expensive than gold, but there are times when the opposite is true. [9] Platinum is more ductile than gold, silver or copper, thus being the most ductile of pure metals, but it is less malleable than gold. Cooperite occurs in the Merensky Reef within the Bushveld complex, Gauteng, South Africa. [86], This article is about the chemical element. [26][27] The large copper–nickel deposits near Norilsk in Russia, and the Sudbury Basin, Canada, are the two other large deposits. What is the Difference Between Precious Metals and Base Metals? [8], Pure platinum is a lustrous, ductile, and malleable, silver-white metal. Does One Have Better Value Than The Other? just hit the target number of turns and use thief on it. Franz Karl Achard made the first platinum crucible in 1784. The mine ceased operations in 1990. Description. The NIST manufactured the wires from platinum bar stock with a chemical purity of 99.999% by weight). [6] Compounds containing platinum, such as cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, are applied in chemotherapy against certain types of cancer. What are the Top 10 Silver Coins for Investment? What Types of Coins are Good for New Collectors? [52], Carl von Sickingen researched platinum extensively in 1772. [51], In 1735, Antonio de Ulloa and Jorge Juan y Santacilia saw Native Americans mining platinum while the Spaniards were travelling through Colombia and Peru for eight years. 188Pt, 191Pt, and 193Pt decay primarily by electron capture. [40] The negative oxidation states exhibited by platinum are unusual for metallic elements, and they are attributed to the relativistic stabilization of the 6s orbitals. [68][69] In addition to laboratory uses, Platinum Resistance Thermometry (PRT) also has many industrial applications, industrial standards include ASTM E1137 and IEC 60751. The value or worth of a Platinum product is calculated relative to the weight of its pure metal content and is measured in troy ounces. How Does Supply and Demand Impact Purchasing Precious Metals? 190Pt and 198Pt are predicted to have energetically favorable double beta decay paths. In 1758, he was sent to superintend mercury mining operations in Huancavelica.[52]. The platinum range, which features the Platinum Rare Haute-Rejuvenation Cream (A$2,270), Platinum Rare Haute-Rejuvenation Eye Cream (A$1,465) and Platinum Rare Cellular Night Elixir (A$1,865), is not only enchanting, but it’s also backed by weighty scientifically proven results too. [37] Caesium platinide, Cs2Pt, a dark-red transparent crystalline compound[38] has been shown to contain Pt2− anions. Is It Important to Know the Price of Gold Per Gram and Per Kilo? The resistance wire in the thermometer is made of pure platinum (e.g. [52], Because the other platinum-family members were not discovered yet (platinum was the first in the list), Scheffer and Sickingen made the false assumption that due to its hardness—which is slightly more than for pure iron—platinum would be a relatively non-pliable material, even brittle at times, when in fact its ductility and malleability are close to that of gold. How Much Gold and Silver Are in an Olympic Medal? Because of its scarcity in Earth's crust, only a few hundred tonnes are produced annually, and given its important uses, it is highly valuable and is a major precious metal commodity.[5]. just watch out because blissey can use fling. Platinum is an extremely rare metal, occurring at a concentration of only 0.005 ppm in Earth's crust. What is the Difference Between a Coin and a Round? PtBiTe), antimonides (PdSb), and arsenides (e.g. It is one of the rarer elements in Earth's crust, with an average abundance of approximately 5 μg/kg. This started what is known as the "platinum age" in Spain. Silver. [46][47], The metal was used by pre-Columbian Americans near modern-day Esmeraldas, Ecuador to produce artifacts of a white gold-platinum alloy. [52] From their first encounters with platinum, the Spanish generally saw the metal as a kind of impurity in gold, and it was treated as such. Platinum is a naturally occurring chemical element that is actually about 30 times rarer than gold, according to Jenny Luker, president of Platinum Guild International USA (PGI), a marketing organization for the platinum jewelry industry. [63], The most common use of platinum is as a catalyst in chemical reactions, often as platinum black. The standard hydrogen electrode also uses a platinized platinum electrode due to its corrosion resistance, and other attributes. Why are Philharmonics so Special to Austria? What is Tamper Proof or Tamper Evident Coin Packaging? [15] Its resistance to wear and tarnish is well suited to use in fine jewellery. Platinum Price History. Platinum is also found in the very rare native alloy platiniridium. In the 18th century, platinum's rarity made King Louis XV of France declare it the only metal fit for a king. The rarity of Platinum cannot be overstated because it has a vast array of uses, particularly in industrial use, including catalytic converters, laboratory equipment and even dentistry equipment. The most common oxidation states of platinum are +2 and +4. Chabeneau realized the infusibility of platinum would lend value to objects made of it, and so started a business with Joaquín Cabezas producing platinum ingots and utensils. Silver Thursday | The Hunt Brothers Scheme, The Gold Standard Throughout U.S. History. [70], Platinum is a precious metal commodity; its bullion has the ISO currency code of XPT. Platinum and gold are both precious metals. Ulloa and Juan found mines with the whitish metal nuggets and took them home to Spain. The Platinum Rare Haute-Rejuvenation Cream is that dream made manifest. It is much rarer then Gold. Platinum is rare. Its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. Smaller reserves can be found in the United States,[27] for example in the Absaroka Range in Montana. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. Platinum is used in catalytic converters, laboratory equipment, electrical contacts and electrodes, platinum resistance thermometers, dentistry equipment, and jewelry. Jewellery trade publications advise jewellers to present minute surface scratches (which they term patina) as a desirable feature in attempt to enhance value of platinum products. It is quite possible they did not recognize there was platinum in their gold. How rare is platinum? [82] The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has set a recommended exposure limit (REL) for platinum as 1 mg/m3 over an 8-hour workday. Automotive demand is one of the biggest drivers of platinum prices. [59], One suitable method for purification for the raw platinum, which contains platinum, gold, and the other platinum-group metals, is to process it with aqua regia, in which palladium, gold and platinum are dissolved, whereas osmium, iridium, ruthenium and rhodium stay unreacted. [79] "Platinum awards" are the second highest possible, ranking above "gold", "silver" and "bronze", but below diamond. [60] Unprecipitated hexachloroplatinate(IV) may be reduced with elemental zinc, and a similar method is suitable for small scale recovery of platinum from laboratory residues. Stay Informed of Our Special Offers. Because it occurs naturally in the alluvial sands of various rivers, it was first used by pre-Columbian South American natives to produce artifacts. What are the Top 10 Gold Coins for Investment? Miners extract only about 130 million tons of platinum from the ground annually compared to more than 1,700 tons of gold. Its most important application is in automobiles as a catalytic converter, which allows the complete combustion of low concentrations of unburned hydrocarbons from the exhaust into carbon dioxide and water vapor. 7,162 Achievers: 0.4% Ultra Rare: 4.97% Ultra Rare: Platinum Trophy Platinum Trophy PS3. Most platinum isotopes decay by some combination of beta decay and alpha decay. Platinum hexafluoride is a strong oxidizer capable of oxidizing oxygen. [14], In nickel and copper deposits, platinum-group metals occur as sulfides (e.g. The resulting gold-platinum alloy would then be soft enough to shape with tools. 190Pt is the least abundant at only 0.01%. [31], Hexachloroplatinic acid mentioned above is probably the most important platinum compound, as it serves as the precursor for many other platinum compounds. [81], According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, short-term exposure to platinum salts may cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and long-term exposure may cause both respiratory and skin allergies. [51], The first European reference to platinum appears in 1557 in the writings of the Italian humanist Julius Caesar Scaliger as a description of an unknown noble metal found between Darién and Mexico, "which no fire nor any Spanish artifice has yet been able to liquefy". Platinum arsenide, sperrylite (PtAs2), is a major source of platinum associated with nickel ores in the Sudbury Basin deposit in Ontario, Canada. It was often simply thrown away, and there was an official decree forbidding the adulteration of gold with platinum impurities. What are the Top 5 Palladium Coins for Investment? In 1741, Charles Wood,[53] a British metallurgist, found various samples of Colombian platinum in Jamaica, which he sent to William Brownrigg for further investigation. Platinum is insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric acid, but dissolves in hot aqua regia (A mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids), to form chloroplatinic acid, H2PtCl6.[14]. Platinum spot prices can be tricky but the market value of this metal tracks as fluidly as Gold or Silver. Platinum is also used in the petroleum industry as a catalyst in a number of separate processes, but especially in catalytic reforming of straight-run naphthas into higher-octane gasoline that becomes rich in aromatic compounds. The Food and Drug Administration and other institutions have reviewed the issue and found no evidence to suggest toxicity in vivo. At Platinum, Alaska, about 17,000 kg (550,000 ozt) was mined between 1927 and 1975. It is the only stable isotope with a non-zero spin; with a spin of 1/2, 195Pt satellite peaks are often observed in 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy (i.e., Pt-phosphine and Pt-alkyl complexes). Prismatic Secret Rare (PScR) Extra Secret Rare (EScR) Platinum Secret Rare (PlScR) Ultra Secret Rare (UScR) 20th Secret Rare (20ScR) 10000 Secret Rare (10000ScR) Errors. [12] It reacts vigorously with fluorine at 500 °C (932 °F) to form platinum tetrafluoride. Watson F. R. S", Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States, "2010 Minerals Yearbook; Platinum-group metals", "Platinum Metals: A Survey of Productive Resources to industrial Uses", "2014 Minerals Yearbook; Platinum-group metals", "Guide tothe Realization of the ITS-90 - Platinum Resistance Thermometry", International Committee for Weights and Measures, "Standard Reference Material 1750:Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers,13.8033 K to 429.7485 K", "Professional Jeweler's Magazine Archives, issue of August 2004", "The state-of-play and future of platinum drugs", "Occupational Health Guideline for Soluble Platinum Salts (as Platinum)", "CDC – NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Platinum", "FDA Backgrounder on Platinum in Silicone Breast Implants", "187 Fake Cancer 'Cures' Consumers Should Avoid", NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards – Platinum, "A balanced historical account of the sequence of discoveries of platinum; illustrated", "Johnson Matthey Technology Review: A free, quarterly journal of research exploring science and technology in industrial applications (formerly published as Platinum Metals Review)", "Platinum-Group Metals Statistics and Information", "International Platinum Group Metals Association", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Platinum&oldid=990854198, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2014, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 21:54.

how rare is platinum

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